【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第8期: 诺鲁孜节+罗马尼亚和摩尔多瓦共和国的传统壁毯制作技艺

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本文为“一带一路”非遗项目译介专题的第8期

译介项目十四

诺鲁孜节

Nawrouz, Novruz, Nowrouz, Nowrouz, Nawrouz, Nauryz, 

Nooruz, Nowruz, Navruz, Nevruz, Nowruz, Navruz

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图1 阿塞拜疆诺鲁孜节时的传统食物(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2016

申报国家:阿富汗伊斯兰共和国、阿塞拜疆共和国、印度共和国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克共和国、哈萨克斯坦共和     国、吉尔吉斯共和国、巴基斯坦伊斯兰共和国、塔吉克斯坦共和国、土耳其共和国、土库曼斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦共和国

名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

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图2 哈萨克斯坦姑娘在节日期间欢迎客人(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

New Year is often a time when people wish for prosperity and new beginnings. March 21 marks the start of the year in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is referred to as Nauryz, Navruz, Nawrouz, Nevruz, Nooruz, Novruz, Nowrouz or Nowruz meaning ‘new day’ when a variety of rituals, ceremonies and other cultural events take place for a period of about two weeks. An important tradition practised during this time is the gathering around ‘the Table’, decorated with objects that symbolize purity, brightness, livelihood and wealth, to enjoy a special meal with loved ones. New clothes are worn and visits made to relatives, particularly the elderly and neighbours. Gifts are exchanged, especially for children, featuring objects made by artisans. There are also street performances of music and dance, public rituals involving water and fire, traditional sports and the making of handicrafts. These practices support cultural diversity and tolerance and contribute to building community solidarity and peace. They are transmitted from older to younger generations through observation and participation.

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图3 塔吉克斯坦诺鲁孜节日游行(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

人们在新年之际,祈盼生活富足和新的开始。在阿富汗、阿塞拜疆、印度、伊朗(伊斯兰共和国)、伊拉克、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、巴基斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、土耳其、土库曼斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦,3月21日标志着新一年的开始。它被称为Nauryz、Navruz、Nawrouz、Nevruz、Nooruz、Novruz、Nowrouz或Nowruz(诺鲁孜节的各种叫法),意味着“新的一天”,届时,人们将在大约两周的时间内举办各种仪式、庆典和其他文化活动。其中一项重要的传统,就是大家围坐在用象征纯洁、光明、生计和财富的实物装饰的“餐桌”旁,和所爱的人一起享用特别的一餐。人们穿上新衣,走亲访友,尤其要拜访老人和邻居。大家互赠由手工艺人制作的特色礼物,特别要送给孩子们。节日期间,还会有街头歌舞表演、与水火有关的公共仪式,以及传统体育运动和手工艺展示。这些实践活动是对文化多样性和包容性的促进,有助于构建社区团结与和平。诺鲁孜节日活动通过人们的观察和参与,由老及少,世代相传。

 

译介项目十五

罗马尼亚和摩尔多瓦共和国

的传统壁毯制作技艺

Traditional wall-carpet craftsmanship in Romania and the Republic of Moldova

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图4 罗马尼亚的壁毯作坊(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2016

  申报国家:罗马尼亚、摩尔多瓦共和国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

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图5 利用卧式织机制作壁毯的女性(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

In the past, wall carpets produced by weavers in communities of Romania and the Republic of Moldova were used not only as decorative features and sources of insulation but also as part of a bride’s dowry. A variety of techniques were needed to produce the pieces with impressive motifs. Certain patterns also indicated where the weaver was from. The carpets had additional roles in community practices, such as at funerals where they symbolized a passage for the soul to the hereafter. They were also displayed at international exhibitions as markers of national identity. These days, wall carpets are mainly appreciated as works of art for public and private spaces and exhibited at city festivals and ceremonies. Techniques have changed from vertical or horizontal looms practised in some parts, to tight picking (thread by thread) and other forms with weavers now able to work from home. In villages, girls learn the art form from their mother or grandmother, while in cities craft centers, associations and colleges, as well as museums provide classes. Viewed as an expression of creativity and identity marker, wall carpet craftsmanship is also considered as a tool to unite groups in society of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds.

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图6 利用天然植物为毛线染色(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

过去,在罗马尼亚和摩尔多瓦共和国的社区中,织工制作的壁毯不仅具有装饰特性和御寒保暖功能,还是新娘嫁妆的一部分。制作那些图案令人印象深刻的壁毯需要运用各种技巧。某些图案能显示出织工来自哪里。壁毯在社区实践中有着其他作用,例如在葬礼中,它们象征着灵魂去往来世的通路。同时,也作为国家身份的标志在国际展览中展出。如今,壁毯主要作为公共和私人空间的艺术品被人欣赏,并在城市节日庆典活动中展出。壁毯制作技艺已经从一些地方运用的立式织机或卧式织机转变成手工逐根编织,以及其他方便织工在家完成制作的形式。在村庄中,女孩从她们的母亲和祖母那里学习壁毯制作技艺。而在城市中,工艺中心、协会、学院和博物馆同样提供壁毯制作课程。作为创造力和身份标志的表现形式,壁毯制作技艺能将社会中不同年龄、不同社会经济背景的人紧密团结在一起。